Water pollution needs no introduction. With continued pollution, by 2050 more than 5 billion people could suffer water stress due to increases in demand and pollution. Potentially unhealthy conditions will need monitoring.
Our system will constantly monitor the following water parameters-
- Water Temperature
- Mineral Content of Water by color tests-
- pH Value
Our System will constantly read analog data from the sensors networks used. Those Sensors will be uploaded to the ThinkSpeak cloud for online MATLAB analysis. A offline backup of the data will be kept in a SD card too. Measuring and keeping an eye on the above parameters will help us to make water healthier. Our system will contain all components that are available cheaply and easily.
MAIN BRAINS OF THE SYSTEM
- Arduino is a microcontroller and a piece of software, or IDE (Integrated Development Environment) That Runs On our Computer, Used To Write And Upload Computer Code To The Physical Board. Arduino Board Will Be The Brains Of System That Will Take Analog Value From Sensors.
- NODEMCU Advanced Api For Hardware Io, Which Can Dramatically Reduce The Redundant Work For Configuring And Manipulating Hardware. Code Like Arduino, But Interactively In Lua Script. Less Than $2 Wi-Fi Mcu Esp8266 Integrated And Easy To Prototyping Development Kit. We Provide The Best Platform For Iot Application Development At The Lowest Cost. NODEMCU will upload every sensor data to the cloud.
- An SD Card Module will keep offline backup of each and every collected data from sensor on an SD card.
- TEMPERATURE DETERMINATION OF WATER SAMPLE
Sensor Name - Dallas DS18B20
- COLOR TESTS FOR CONTAMINANTS/METALS/RADICALS
- We will test for Iron, Chloride and Lead in water sample using color tests. Our experiments will note for color changes. Color tests are very easy to detect.
- The color change at each test will be noted by TCS3200 Color Sensor shown at right. Arduino will identify the color and inference will be taken likewise.
- IRON TEST IN WATER SAMPLE
Iron chloride and the knife was dipped in potassium thiocyanate solution. When these two solutions came into contact, they exchanged ions or partners. This is sometimes called a switch partners reaction. The iron ions now bind with the thiocyanate ions instead of with the chloride ions. This reaction produced the blood-red color which was iron thiocyanate complex.
Iron chloride + ammonium thiocyanate iron thiocyanate + ammonium chloride
FeCl3 + NH4SCN Þ FeSCN2+ + NH4Cl + 2 Cl1-
- LEAD TEST IN WATER SAMPLE
Almost all alkali metal compounds and nitrates are soluble, but most lead compounds are insoluble (except for acetates, perchlorates, chlorates, and nitrates). Therefore, when the soluble salts lead(II) nitrate and potassium chromate are mixed, insoluble lead(II) chromate forms and precipitates out (Ksp = 2.8 x 10-13)
Pb(NO3)2(aq) + K2CrO4(aq) ==> PbCrO4(s) + 2 KNO3(aq) or Pb2+(aq) + CrO42-(aq)
PbCrO4(s) Lead(II) chromate is also known as "chrome yellow" and has been used as a yellow pigment since the 1800's. It is, however, fairly toxic. It occurs naturally in the rare mineral "crocoite".
- CHLORIDE TEST IN WATER SAMPLE
Sodium chloride and silver nitrate in dissolved form can react with each other in normal conditions. Both salts are soluble, but the product of their reaction, silver chloride AgCl is a salt that is insoluble in water, which precipitates after reaction in a white curd-like sediment:
NaCl + AgNO₃ = NaNO₃ + AgCl.
This is the qualitative reaction for chloride ions – silver ions always bond them into an insoluble compound.
To 4-5 drops of the salt solution (in this case sodium chloride), 0.5 ml of diluted nitric acid and 2-3 drops of silver nitrate solution is added. On the sample glass a white curd-like sediment forms, soluble in ammonium.
- Turbidity is a measure of the degree to which the water loses its transparency due to the presence of suspended particulates.
TURBIDITY TEST USING OPTICAL METHOD
Water turbidity can be measured using optical methods. One monochromatic light source can be directed into a test tube filled with water sample. A photo-detector will be placed just 180 degrees opposite to the source that takes in the light. The amount of received light will be dependent on the liquid turbidity. As liquid is more turbid, less amount of light will be received by the photodetector and vice versa. The analog voltage of photodetector will be detected by the ADC of Arduino. Then using some trail and errors, calculations, regressions, constant finding w.r.t. some standard turbidity values etc, we can calculate turbidity of the water sample.
- pH MEASUREMENT
Analog pH meter, specially designed for Arduino controllers and has convenient and practical "Gravity" connector and a bunch of features. Instant connection to your probe an your Arduino to get pH measurements at ± 0.1pH (25 °C).