Water pollution is one of the biggest fears for the green globalization. At present, water parameters are detected by chemical test or laboratory test, where the testing equipments are stationary and samples are provided to testing equipment. Thus the current water quality monitoring system is a manual system with a tedious process and is very time consuming. In order to increase the frequency, the testing equipment can be placed in the water resources and detection of pollution can be made remotely. We need to estimate the water parameters like pH, turbidity, temperature and TDS as the variations in the values of these parameters point towards the presence of pollutants. Here we have designed and developed a low cost system for real time monitoring of the water quality using IoT.
This paper proposes a Sensor-Based Water Quality Monitoring System which is used for measuring physical and chemical parameters of the water. The measured values from the sensors can be processed by the core controller, the Raspberry Pi. Finally, the sensor data can be viewed on the Internet using ThingSpeak API. The uniqueness of our proposed paper is to obtain the water monitoring system with high frequency, high mobility, and low power.
The proposed method is used to overcome the drawbacks present in existing method. Here we are using Raspberry pi as core controller and various sensors to monitor the water quality.
The block diagram of our system is shown in Figure 1. The Raspberry pi will access the data from different sensors and then processes the data. The sensor data can be viewed on the cloud using ThingSpeak App.
Raspberry pi processor:
It is a minicomputer, usually with a Linux OS to run multiple programs. Raspberry pi has the built in Ethernet port, through which you can connect to the network.
pH sensor (SKU:SEN0161) is a sensor which detects pH value. This sensor is shown in Figure 3.
The term “pH” set off from Latin and is an acronym for “potential hydrogenii” or “the power of hydrogen.” pH is the hydrogen-ion concentration in water-based solutions.
Turbidity is the measure of a number of particles in the water. We used a Turbidity Sensor(SEN0189) for measuring the Turbidity which is shown in Figure 5. Turbidity is measured in Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU). It is taken as the optical property of water and is an expression of the amount of the light that is scattered by the suspended particles in the water when a light is shined through the water sample.
The temperature sensor (DS18B20) is used for measuring the temperature of water. This is shown in Figure 5. When the accurate measurement is needed, we should always consider the temperature. The increase in temperature of water increases the ionization rate. For example, pH value as well as turbidity changes with the change in temperature.
“Dissolved solids” refers to any minerals, salts, metals dissolved in water. Total dissolved solids (TDS) comprise in organic salts (principally calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bicarbonate, chlorides, and sulphate) and some small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. TDS (Total Dissolved Solid) sensor kit which is compatible with IoT Device, plug and play, easy to use.
In our proposed system four sensors (Temperature, pH, TDS and Turbidity) are connected to the Raspberry pi as shown in Figure 1. These four sensor measures of Temperature, pH, TDS and Turbidity parameters of the water when they dipped in water. Then Raspberry Pi will access the data from these sensors and process the data, finally send the data to ThingSpeak API using network. The Figure 7 shows the readings of all the sensors measuring Temperature, pH, TDS and Turbidity levels of Water from different resources.
Cost & Viability:
The total setup and installation would cost around $100 and with no maintenance. Hence it would be viable for both commercial and domestic use.
Advantages & Application
The main advantage of the system is its versatility towards the installation. The system can be used for both commercial and domestic purposes. For commercial service it would be mainly be helpful for the Water Supply Agencies. Also it would be a boon for the health department since it can identify the reason of water diseases and can be helpful in keeping track of it. Due to automation it will also reduce the time required in measuring the parameters and would increase the efficiency of check. It is economically affordable for domestic use and it requires no or very low maintenace. The best gift to human society would be, it will help in prevention of waterborne diseases.