Nowadays water pollution has become an extremely serious issue that humans have to deal with urgently. Water pollution leads to disruption of food-chains, diseases, and destruction of ecosystems which makes society cost increase dramatically.

Our team proposes a highly 6G and IoT integratable, robust, all-day self-operating, low-cost, eco-friendly, real-time, efficient, deep-learning processed, big-data analysis terahertz system called "TERAqua." TERAqua can monitor acidity, suspended particles, contaminants, conductivity and temperature in real-time and can make water-cleaning much easier. TERAqua is an exceedingly innovative system based on terahertz technology.

All sources and receivers in TERAqua use our world’s most crack terahertz plasmonic photoconductive antenna device (THz plasmonic PCA). (7.5% Optical-to-Terahertz Conversion Efficiency Offered by Photoconductive Emitters with Three-Dimensional Plasmonic Contact Electrodes, Shang Hua-Yang et al. 2014 IEEE).

Terahertz wave is a highly potential technology for 6G, IoT and environmental sensing. It is an electromagnetic wave with wavelength located between microwave and infrared (300Hz-10THz, 1THz=1000GHz) and can be implemented into 6G, IoT and environmental sensing, security, medical imaging, astronomy, etc.

TERAqua mainly contains terahertz 6G, IoT and environmental sensing techniques. The working principle of TERAqua is so simple but powerful and can be divided into two parts, terahertz sensing and terahertz communication.

First, terahertz sensing can detect acidity, suspended particles, contaminants, conductivity and temperature real-time with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and terahertz bolometer. THz-TDS contains one terahertz source and one terahertz detector. The terahertz source emits terahertz wave through water. Due to absorption of water, contaminants and suspended particle, the power spectrum of terahertz wave will differ. Using terahertz detectors, our team can extract the terahertz wave for water quality analysis. THz-TDS can monitor acidity, suspended particles, contaminants, conductivity. For temperature, TERAqua uses terahertz bolometer which can be easily implemented to monitor the water temperature.

Second, terahertz communication is to deliver collected water quality big data to the data center through fiber system and/or to nearby TERAqua units through wireless terahertz wave (6G) in ultra-high speed (Gigabit-scale). By installing many TERAqua units along rivers, TERAqua can acquire big data at every moment because terahertz sensing in TERAqua is real-time. At the same time, TERAqua sends these water quality data to the data center. The data center utilizes deep learning to do quick and precise analysis. After analyzing, data center uploads real-time water data to the cloud so that people can enjoy complete and latest data. On the other hand, TERAqua units can communicate with other TERAqua units with wireless terahertz wave (6G). In this way, TERAqua units form a communicable society. Therefore, TERAqua can integrate with various mature IoT systems.

One of the beauties of our TERAqua system is the awesomeness for mass production and cost-down with its all-in-one property. Because, typically, terahertz sources and terahertz detectors in other THz-TDS systems are different components. However, in the TERAqua system all THz sources and THz detector are made by our world’s most crack THz plasmonic PCA which means that manufacturers merely need to focus on producing a single device to achieve cost-down and mass production.

Another beauty of the TERAqua system is that TERAqua highly integrates state-of-the-art technology including deep learning, big data, 6G communication system, and mature fiber systems. TERAqua can send big data to the data center and/or nearby TERAqua units through 6G communication. After delivering data to the data center, the data center analyzes big data with deep learning to achieve precise and quick processing. And then TERAqua uploads final data to the cloud. Everyone is available to access those water quality data. On the other hand, after sending data to other TERAqua units, other TERAqua units are able to know operating condition and water quality situation of one another which means that TERAqua units form a communicable society. With many useful schemes of IoT, TERAqua is able to achieve communication cost-saving, power-saving and other desired goals due to the property of communicable society.

Last but not least, TERAqua is highly efficient, robust, all-day operating and eco-friendly. TERAqua contains THz plasmonic PCAs, THz bolometers, fiber system, and a server. For PCAs, our team has already fabricated the world’s most crack THz plasmonic PCA. For fiber systems, our team can collaborate with telecom companies (double-win strategy). For the server, our team can easily purchase related hardware from various companies. All these components are robust and all-day self-operating. Furthermore, these components in TERAqua will not produce extra pollution which means that TERAqua is eco-friendly.

In summary, TERAqua is a highly 6G and IoT integratable, robust, all-day self-operating, low-cost, eco-friendly, real-time, efficient, deep-learning processed, big-data analysis system that can detect acidity, suspended particles, contaminants, conductivity, and temperature. In the future, TERAqua can further integrate with other types of awesome IoT systems to build up incredibly huge smart communities!

Inspiration

Three keywords, “Water Pollution”, “State-of-the-Art of Terahertz Technology” and “IoT Era” inspire our team to come up with the breathtaking idea of TERAqua. “Water pollution”, nowadays, water pollution has become an extremely serious issue what humans have to deal with urgently. Water pollution leads to disruption of food-chains, diseases, and destruction of ecosystems which makes society cost increase dramatically. “State-of-the-art of Terahertz technology”, Terahertz magnetic-wave technology is a highly potential technology for 6G, IoT and environmental sensing, security, medical imaging, spacing, etc. Also, our team has already demonstrated the world’s most crack terahertz plasmonic photoconductive antenna device so our team is looking forward the opportunities to apply our amazing THz plasmonic PCA to deal with some serious issue in the world. “IoT Era”, The world will become a single thinking entity in the near future through IoT. Machine learning, 6G communication, and big data work together and push forward human civilization. The era of IoT is coming! Therefore, our team proposes TERAqua system. TERAqua uses our own the world’s most crack THz sources/detectors, integrating potential terahertz technology and popular IoT to solve urgent water pollution issue.

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