In today’s world water, a vital resource required for sustaining life is becoming scarce, which is leading to an impure water supply and water shortages. To prevent this, not only are water preservation techniques like rainwater harvesting required, but also water wastage must be prevented. Humans are a selfish species who give money making the highest priority. Our solution innovatively quenches the thirst for money and conserves water.
Our solution is divided into three components:
1) Rainwater Harvesting:
A user can harvest rainwater using any of the harvesting method he likes and finds suitable. The harvested water is stored in Smart Tanks. After a certain predefined amount of water is collected, quality of water is tested against a set of predefined parameters set by grid administrator. If the test passes, the water is sent to the grid. If the test fails, the user may have an installed water cleaning system to meet the purity parameters and then send it or discard the collected water. Since the water quality is measured before sending it to the grid, the quality of water in supply system is maintained. Since the user ‘Sells’ the water, he earns money which not only motivates him to install rainwater harvesting systems at home, but also covers the cost.
2) Water Supply to Home and Smart Tanks:
Municipality already supply water at out homes, thus we all have our homes connected to supply grid and have water storage tanks at home. A common issue user faces is that either he forgets to power on the pump to fill the tank or he forgets to power off the pump after the tank is filled leading to overflowing and water wastage. The Smart Water Tank takes care of these problems by automatically powering the water pump when water level falls below a certain level and powering it off when water tank is filled. Before the pump starts, it take care of the water quality by first checking the purity of water and only then fills the tanks
3) Implementation using IoT and Blockchain:
Various sensors are used in Smart Tank. They may include water level measuring sensors made simply using wires along with purity measurement sensors like TDS sensors, turbidity sensors. The amount of water purchased (while filling the tanks) and sold (Rainwater harvesting) will account for water bills. Since water is resource whose quality must be maintained at all times, the data from sensors is sent onto online serves using arduino and ESP8266 for monitoring and keeping past records.
This is all implemented on a Blockchain where all the transactions are maintained so that there is no forgery in bills and on the data of quality of water supplied. Since we are using Blockchain, we also introduced micro-transactions so that billing is instantaneous.
Connecting the modules and Implementation
The system is easily scalable and can be implemented on our existing water supply grid by nearly just making water grid smart by adding the water level sensors and all the sensors you want to test purity of water, using arduino and ESP8266 to send data online. In our demo, we have made a water level sensors by using wires and checking current flow. For purity measurement we have used homemade TDS meter which measures conductivity and applies required formulas.
Manufacturability and Impact
Only the IoT module needs to be manufactured which is basically arduino connected to various sensors and ESP8266. This can be cheaply made if we instead of Arduino use Atmel ATMega328P directly and design a PCB with proper slots for connecting the sensors which is an easy task.
In Urban areas where water is supplied by municipality, we already have an infrastructure of water supply. Very few households have rainwater harvesting systems since they can be expensive. By implementing our solution, rainwater harvesting systems can be turned into investments which now fetch money for the users during rainy season which will promote everyone to install one in their household. This will also reduce pressure on groundwater resources and water table will be maintained.
In countries like India, there are droughts during summer and heavy rainfall during monsoons. Overuse of groundwater reserves due to extremely high population causes depletion of water table and then millions face water scarcity. Rainwater harvesting can be done to prevent it.
Also, often, contaminated water is supplied and no one takes responsibility as there is no solid proof available. Since all the data will now be available on a secure blockchain, this issue is resolved.
In many areas around the world, arsenic poisoning, for example, is common which occurs by drinking arsenic contaminated water. In such areas, the sensors may include Arsenic sensors and the tank will fill only when the levels are in permissible values. This will ensure that this or any other water borne disease is kept in check.