Water is getting scarce - the planet never loses a single drop of H2O. Although water is a finite resource, it will not be used up as long as we do not render it permanently unusable. According to FICCI Water Mission Survey, India is projected to move into the category of water stressed nations by 2020.
Surface water is the major source of water for the industries (41%) followed by groundwater (35%) and municipal water (24%). The use of municipal water is limited to industries located in urban/ pre-urban areas. A vast majority of industries use surface and groundwater in conjunction with groundwater being relied as a source when surface water availability is on a decline or is impacted by water pollution bound to have an impact on the industrial process. A large percentage of industries (24%) use treated wastewater for industrial processes.
By 2050, the global water demand of agriculture is estimated to increase by a further 19% due to irrigational needs. As the world continues to grow, commercial agriculture consumes more and more water. To meet the demand for water, industrial waste water is also act as a major source for irrigation and horticulture.
A process called decentralization process is used to treat the industrial waste water. This treated water is used for agriculture. Even though the water is treated, there is an imbalance in water quality. This causes health hazard to both farmers and consumers and more than 50 million people suffers with health risks.
To overcome this problem, we propose an idea which aims to solve this problem by monitoring with sensors at critical points for efficient water treatment. Our system comprises of various water quality monitoring sensors at critical points, AI based microcontroller and a mineral box. During decentralized water treatment, these sensors continuously keeps checking pH, the amount of dissolved minerals such as, dissolved O2, H2, N2, ammonia, turbidity etc.. The waste water quality is tested and updated in to the AI Database. AI analyses this information and automatically adds necessary minerals to neutralize the treated water which will be suitable for agricultural usage. This helps in monitoring and controlling the water treatment process more efficiently and it greatly reduces the health hazards.
Though the water is treated, it is still not suitable for agriculture. Hence, the water is to be monitored by the sensors regularly. These sensors sense the amount of minerals in the water. The information is updated in the AI based microcontrollers. The microcontrollers are programmed in such a way that, if the amount of minerals present is not adequate or excess, it adds or reduces the minerals and neutralizes the water.
The minerals are packed in the mineral box. The microcontroller allows adequate amount of minerals to get dissolved that is needed to neutralize the water. By this way the water becomes neutralized and is suitable for agriculture. The water is again monitored so that if the water is still not neutralized, the process is again repeated. Once it is treated, it is distributed to the agricultural fields.
A pH meter is a scientific instrument that measures the hydrogen-ion activity in water-based solutions, indicating its acidity or alkalinity expressed as pH.
Turbidity sensors measure the amount of light that is scattered by the suspended solids in water. As the amount of total suspended solids (TSS) in water increases, the water’s turbidity level (and cloudiness or haziness) increases. Turbidity sensors are used in river and stream gaging, wastewater and effluent measurements, control instrumentation for settling ponds, sediment transport research, and laboratory measurements. Turbidity is measured in Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU). It is taken as the optical property of water and is an expression of the amount of the light that is scattered by the suspended particles in the water when a light is shined through the water sample.
A TDS meter indicates the total dissolved solids (TDS) of a solution, i.e. the concentration of dissolved solid particles. Dissolved ionized solids, such as salts and minerals, increase the electrical conductivity (EC) of a solution. Because it is a volume measure of ionized solids, EC can be used to estimate TDS. Dissolved organic solids such as sugar, and microscopic solid particles such as colloids, do not significantly affect the conductivity of a solution, and are not taken into account.
The overall research goal of artificial intelligence is to identify the water quality and make decision about the level nutrition in treated water in an intelligent manner. It automatically learns and improves from experience without being explicitly programmed. This can be done with the help of Arduino.